Q3: What about dielectrics—Teflon versus what?
Dielectrics of Insulations :
The lower dielectric , the lower capacitance .
The dielectric of insulation materials : PVC > PP & PE > Teflon > Foamed PE
PVC : Although the dielectric is not as good as the others, it is cheaper , and it has the most diversity in applications which can not be replaced by other materials , such as extrusion size , color, printing , flexibility ..etc . So that PVC is still the most . common insulation to make cable
PP& PE : The dielectrics are similar in both PP & PE , they are commonly used for insulation(not jacket) to give better isolation . PE is easier to extrude, so it is often more used in cable designs . PP has a better impact , so it is used more in some harder products (eg. Bottle, plastic board..etc).
Teflon : Teflon has excellent dielectric , intensity , wear-resistant , heat-resistant , but is an extremely expensive material , 15 times higher than PVC , 3.5 times higher than copper .. So do not be surprised if the cable prices are much higher than between Teflon & other materials .
Foamed PE : Although the dielectric is good,the Foamed processing means lots of air in the insulation,and the wire size is much larger . It is commonly used in High Frequency cables such as Coaxial cables and Interconnect Cable to lower capacitance.